Had you rather Caesar were living and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? Sophocles said, Rather fail with honor than succeed by fraud. brutus was gullible but honorable and that is why he is the tragic character. 'Babylon' Review: The Dumb Lives of Trigger-Happy Cops, Jeb Bushs Unseen Anti-Gay Marriage Emails, Houellebecqs Incendiary Novel Imagines France With a Muslim President, Trolls and Martyrdom: Je Ne Suis Pas Charlie, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XX, 1621-1624. Brutus was a cautious, devious, and naive man, Brutus is the Tragic Hero in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, The Honorable Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Honor And Honor In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. As much as these traits lead us to believe, To be honorable, to the very end, is what Brutuss life stood for. It's safe to say that Antony makes the most of his opportunity. Who is Jason crabb mother and where is she? Brutus Character Analysis. Brutus should kill Marc Antony when he has the chance, and not be so concerned for his own image. In Roman history, some elite men held certain values that they felt strong enough to take their life in order to defend it. Opines that brutus deserves sympathy because he remained true to the original cause. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest- For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men- Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. Brutus had good intentions for Romes people, which is why he did not think Caesar would be a good leader. He doesnt agree with killing Caesar for no reason but he agrees with killing him for the people. freebooksummary.com 2016 2022 All Rights Reserved, We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. In William Shakespeares Julius Caesar, Shakespeare uses Brutus as an honorable, idealistic man in order to show the depth that a high-class Roman man will go through in order to defend his honor. He repeats "honorable" to accentuate Brutus's honorability and make the people of Rome question it. Dont would survive even a Julius Caesar. 2 95-96). This proves that Brutuss intentions were just as honorable as the man he was. It is true that Marcus Junius Brutus killed Julius Caesar purely for the well being of the Roman people, and he truly did exist as the most noble roman of them all (V.v.73). For let the gods so speed as I love. 792 Words4 Pages. Antony's performance on the bully pulpit should come as no surprise. Shakespeares Julius Caesar is about the tragic death of Julius Caesar. Brutus and Cassius are two main characters who share many things; one of the most similarities of Cassius and Brutus is that they are both one of noblest and most. Analyzes how caesar followed calpurnia's orders, but was easily persuaded by decius to accompany him to the senate, which resulted in his bloody death. If it were so, it was a grievous fault, And grievously hath Caesar answered it. Brutus claims that he is frightened of Caesar becoming king of Rome. Antony brings attention to the unethical assassination by focusing on Brutus's apparent "honorable[ness]". Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. Brutus reveals his nobility to his people when he says in Act 3, scene 2, If then that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more(126). ?>. Analyzes how brutus is an honorable, trustworthy man to even the most respectable romans, but he is easily manipulated. Yet I see thy honorable mettle may be wrought from that it is disposed, was said by Cassius himself intended toward Brutus! Analyzes how brutus joins the conspiracy in order to help the romans rid rome of caesar. Analyzes how shakespeare's the tragedy of julius caesar portrays brutus as a tragic hero. He also had a firm sense of loyalty, even though his loyalty lied most to Rome. To begin with, Brutus has a deep sense of love for his city, and concerns himself with its well-being. He loved Caesar as a friend, but was so easily set back by Cassius. Throughout the play, Brutus fell for the manipulative ways of Cassius and the other conspirators. he avoided any grilling from octavious and antony had he lived. antony took revenge for caesar and started a war against them. Brutus was honorable because he was true to his convictions. While often when a character is described as honorable and honest these seem to be very positive attributes of the character, to much of anything is never good. After Brutus kills Caesar off, he starts to feel guilty for killing his friend, thus creating an internal conflict. Brutus is not concerned for the people, but for his image when he joins the conspiracy. Why Is Brutus Not Honorable Brutus shows true honor and love for the people of Rome. The conspirators also lied and deceived their very own supporter, Brutus, who was a very honest man, and who truly loved Rome. There's an ocean of difference between the way people speak English in the US vs. the UK. Meaning his honorableness and loyalty to someone can be bent and persuaded so easily. You all saw how, on the Lupercal public holiday, I offered him a royal crown three times, which he rejected each time. He killed Caesar out of fear of what may happen to the beloved people of Rome. submit it as your own as it will be considered plagiarism. Brutus died in the end for Caesar which exhibits his love for Caesar and for the country. He knows that if Brutus believes the people distrust Caesar, then he will be convinced that Caesar must be thwarted. Brutus is an honorable man is ironic, as Antony is attempting to portray Brutus as ungrateful and treacherous. In fact, in Antony's funeral oration, Antony. He gives a speech to the public because he feels they deserve to know the reason why Caesar dies, And, waving our red weapons oer our heads,/ Lets all cry Peace, freedom, and liberty!. Overall, Brutus perfectly fits into all the categories that define a hero. Evidence of Brutus's honorable character is obvious in the fact that he is permitting Antony to speak at Caesar's funeral. For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men- Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. Source (s) Julius Caesar 2 139). Cassius tells Brutus that it is for the good of Rome, and that he is saving them from a dictatorship. He did it for the people but as a person Brutus still loved Caesar as much as Caesar used to love him. if it weren't for the act of murder, he would most definitely be a hero. He's prodding at Brutus' guilt.. trying to get under his skin. However, as seen by Marc Antony and Cassius manipulating Brutus and Brutuss death, excessive pursuit of virtue can be detrimental. Analyzes how the question about brutus isn't whether he's good or bad, but a hero or villain in shakespeares julius caesar. This suggests that, despite the shifting loyalties of the masses and changing political expediencies, Brutus is really proven to be "an honorable man" by the way he follows his principles in the long run, even unto death. he exemplifies his honor in many ways. His honor and loyalty shape the world around him. Although, the virtue of Brutus is forced, unnatural. Many of these acrions end up hurting him beacause brutus was only thinking of his image and not of the possible concequences that could occur. Explore how the human body functions as one unit in assignments. 1 49). At no point did he ever betray anyone, although he did kill Caesar, he did it to better Rome, not to mislead him. A site born from the book "Your Daily Shakespeare" Finding Shakespeare in daily life and events. Let us help you get a good grade on your paper. He succeeds in turning the Roman people against Brutus and the other assassins. Marcus Brutus is the hero in the play Julius Caesar because he is loyal to Rome, he is respectful to his people, and humble to those who are less fortunate than him. This is very relevant to Julius Caesar Act II, because Brutus has to decide whether to join the conspiracy or to tell Caesar about what Cassius plans to do. This is shown in the tradgety of Julius Caesar in the fact that these two traits are one if the main characters, brutus, flaws. His outspoken protests against apartheid led. Some see him as a betrayer for his role in the assassination of Julius Caesar, while others view him as a patriot for his commitment to the Republic and his willingness to act against a tyrant. Brutus fails not because he obtains an excessive amount of virtue, but because he hunted for virtue excessively. 269). F. He was very short sighted regarding the history of Rome. In addition to both characters being honorable, their actions got the best of them and may have changed them for the worst. fellow romans. 1 195-196). Brutus exemplifies This rhetorical device forces the Romans to consider Brutus's character and leads to them understanding . characters in the play show there reverence for Brutus. This heroic quality is one of the things that drives him to be a good leader, and a good person as well. Brutus did not believe that killing him for no appearnent reason was the most worthy way so before he made his final decision, he knew it was for the common good. He was a man who loved Caesar and was a friend of Caesars throughout the play leading to his death. Choose skilled expert on your subject and get original paper with free plagiarism Brutus goes into the pulpit. Analyzes how brutus' first dishonorable act is not standing up for what he believes to be true. If Brutus had cared for the people, he would have continued to fight for them. If it were so, it was a grievous fault, And grievously hath Caesar answered it. Analyzes how marcus junius brutus was a man of his word that the roman people loved dearly and looked up to. Brutus begins his speech in Act III, scene ii, at Caesar's funeral, with an upset crowd questioning his motives for killing Caesar. Brutus knew that if Caesar was crowned, he would never have a chance, and he was power hungry. Brutus had given compassion to others, even going so far as to offer his life to please the people of Rome. Dennis Brutus is an internationally known poet whose poems centre on his sufferings and those of his fellow blacks in South Africa under apartheid. Sometimes it is hard to do all the work on your own. A teacher walks into the Classroom and says If only Yesterday was Tomorrow Today would have been a Saturday Which Day did the Teacher make this Statement? During the planning of Caesars assassination, Cassius wanted revenge, but because Brutus was so patriotic he continuously expressed to the conspirators that they had to do it for the benefit of the country. Sophocles said, "Rather fail with honor than succeed by fraud." brutus was gullible but honorable and that is why he is the tragic character. In actuality, he joins the conspiracy not to preserve the Republic but to show virtue, to look better, more virtuous, in the eyes of the Roman people. When he took part in the murder of his dear friend. And yet Brutus says he was ambitious, and one sure thing is that Brutus is an honourable man. He is a man of honor and good intentions who sacrifices his own happiness for the benefit of others. If Brutus was honorable he wouldnt have been so easily persuaded by Cassius to go as far as committing a murder. Before Antony begins his speech he is approached by the Romans with comments to not speak bad on Brutus's name, which is why he utilized the anaphora to repeat that Brutus is . However, Brutus kills him because of what is the best for Rome. Cassius explains to Brutus that Caesar must be killed in order to preserve Rome, and not because of any other reason, like Cassiuss jealousy. The Speech That Changed Everything If then that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. to help you write a unique paper. Brutus shows loyalty by his never ending will to make Rome the best it can be. Analyzes how pondering brutus' story rather than caesar's is helpful in figuring out how to look at things differently. Even after Brutus dies, Marc Antony says This was the noblest roman of them all; all the conspirators, save only he, did that they did in the envy of Caesar; he only in a general honest thought and common good to all This shows that regardless of brutus killing Caesar, he is still considered noble because he had good intentions. Get original paper in 3 hours and nail the task. and. Cassius is going for Brutuss weakest point, his care and concern for Rome. Explanation: 1- Antony is attempting to portray Brutus as ungrateful and treacherous. Although, he acts foolishly, for he not only prevents the conspirators from killing Antony, he allows Antony, Caesars right hand man, to speak last in Caesars funeral. Selflessness, a noble trait to have, but when one puts everything before themselves, it will only lead to tragedy. Brutus gives a reasoned prose speech that convinces the crowd Caesar had to die. After all, it is not what one does, but how one does it. The quickest way to be informed of new articles and new videos is to follow me on Twitter. Loyalty in a friendship is very important and sadly thats something Brutus doesnt have. 85-86). When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept; Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man. As he was valiant, I honor him. "Brutus is an honorable man" is ironic, as Antony is attempting to portray Brutus as ungrateful and treacherous. Brutus had no brother. That is, he is obtuse enough to be a menace, but not stupid enough to be innocuous. The word honorable has to do with people and actions that are honest, fair, and worthy of respect. While Brutus used credibility to pursue the audience, Antony used sarcasm to wake them up. For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men-. Compares brutus and caesar in shakespeare's play. Antony is fully aware that it would be unwise to speak disparagingly. He hunts for glory and virtue so obsessively that he loses sense of what he believes in. Brutus, the main conspirator against Caesar, is seen by the majority of the plays readers as a tragic hero. Brutus would just as soon kill himself than have himself killed. This quote spoken by Cassius shows his need to get Brutus to be part of the conspirators. He was a very highly thought of person in Rome. Near the beginning of the play, Julius Caesar was exponentially gaining power, That some people didnt believe was best for the country. FIRST PLEBEIAN I will hear Brutus speak. Brutus and Antony are both noble people that are both fair speakers in William Shakespeares play, Julius Cesar.. When you lose a game, it's honorable to shake hands. Brutus killed Caesar in a way that any friend would. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, and Brutus is an honourable man. Consequently, on one hand, Brutus's character traits show he is an honorable man who serves Caesar out of a deep sense of friendship and loyalty. I shall have glory by this losing day more than Octavius and Mark Antony by this vile conquest shall attain unto. you to an academic expert within 3 minutes. An example of this in the play would be in act 2 when brutus joins the conspirators against Caesar soley because he believed the people of rome needed and wanted him. Analyzes how brutus' intentions were to save rome, his country, and the people in it. This quotation of Antony, Caesars faithful servant, demonstrates that all the conspirators, except Brutus, did the stabbing not because they thought it would benefit for Rome not to be under a King, but because of selfish reasons . He never would have killed a friend, or anyone else, if he didnt believe his intentions were noble ones. Marcus Junius Brutus was a man of his word that the Roman people loved dearly and looked up to. Casca says, Oh, he sits high in all peoples hearts, and that which would appear offense in us, his countenance, like the richest alchemy, will change to virtue and to worthiness (I.iii.159-162), this quote basically means that because of his honor, that he was very respected and loved by the people of Rome. Throughout Julius Caesar there are many different ways that Brutus proves his honor. 986 Words 4 Pages cookie policy. Antony does not have it easy. Concludes that brutus is a true hero in the william shakespeare play, julius caesar. Many Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. Rome Brutus decides that he must follow his morals and has to kill Caesar for the way that he wanted to. Brutuss level of patriotism is inconsequential to the story because plays a factor in many of his important decisions . Pages 5 Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. Analyzes how brutus is cautious, devious, and naive. What he says and what he means are two completely different things. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition There is a dispute going on about whether Marcus Brutus is an honorable man or not an honorable man. This is probably the second best known repartee by William Shakespeare. protect; B. Julius Caesar had pardoned him after the defeat of Furthermore, Brutus honor and respect shows to all the citizens in Rome and he is mainly well known by these two traits. If Brutus had killed Antony, and not been so concerned about virtue, Brutus would have been able to remain in Rome, remain loved by his people. Cowardly, when things got tough, he ran away from it. In Shakespeares Julius Caesar no man is more vocal than Brutus. But Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man. In act 4, Brutus sees the ghost of Caesar, and this tells us that he is regretting his actions. Weirdly though, Brutus does admit that Caesar was good for the people. us: [emailprotected]. Well Brutus you are noble, but I can tell that honorable qualities can be given in a new direction. Registration number: 419361 Brutus' concentration on honorable and noble behavior also leads him into assuming a naive view of the world. All rights reserved. In the end, this in itself is not virtuous. The fact that Brutus really is honorable makes the sarcasm even more potent. And public reasons shall be renderd Of Caesar's death. What is the answer punchline algebra 15.1 why dose a chicken coop have only two doors? He states that Brutus is just as noble and worthy as Caesar. Brutus avoids the questions and must recount hereafter of Cassiuss reasoning, Brutus needs time to consider if the conspiracy is virtuous or not (1. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest-. For these reasons I say Brutus was not an honorable man. Greed, ambition, and the possibility of self-gain are always constant in their efforts to influence peoples actions. Furthermore, he was the only conspirator who did not act out of his envy of Caesar, but rather for the common good to all., 322166814/www.reference.com/Reference_Desktop_Feed_Center6_728x90, The Best Benefits of HughesNet for the Home Internet User, How to Maximize Your HughesNet Internet Services, Get the Best AT&T Phone Plan for Your Family, Floor & Decor: How to Choose the Right Flooring for Your Budget, Choose the Perfect Floor & Decor Stone Flooring for Your Home, How to Find Athleta Clothing That Fits You, How to Dress for Maximum Comfort in Athleta Clothing, Update Your Homes Interior Design With Raymour and Flanigan, How to Find Raymour and Flanigan Home Office Furniture. This was the noblest Roman of them all. CHARACTER ANALYSIS Analyzes how brutus' concentration on honor and nobility ends up being used against him by cassius, who instigates him to kill his best friend. And Brutus is an honourable man. (Julius Caesar act 3 sc. Cassius is aware of Brutus's character, and he knows very well that a titled man such as Brutus deserves the same, if not more better treatment than Caesar. He hath brought many captives home to Rome, Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill. Cassius What you have said I will consider. he is motivated to join the conspiracy because he believes antony doesn't pose any threat. He even subtly mocks the senators with his lines "My credit now stands on such slippery ground/That one of two bad ways you must conceit me/Either a coward or a flatterer." He does many virtuous acts, although he acts knowingly that his effect, the result of his actions, will be virtuous. This letter sways Brutus to act on behalf of the desires of the people of Rome and join with the conspirators to kill Caesar. He thinks it detracts from his own virtue. In this statement and many other statements following the same pattern Antony degrades the honor and the arguments of Caesar's ambition that were made by Brutus and the other conspirators. In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Brutus and Mark Antony must win the support of the Romans by making a speech to them. He joined the plot to assassinate the man he was sworn to You all did see that on the Lupercal We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. he agreed to kill caeser only because cassius convinced him that it must be done. Brutus is a true inspiration, not only to me, but to everyone who reads the. Concludes that brutus is the real tragic hero because throughout the play he is battling himself over good vs. evil. The assassination of Caesar was a violent and treacherous act, and many people saw Brutus as a traitor and a murderer. The protagonist of the play, Marcus Brutus, supports this thought by having an idealistic view on the world and by showing his patriotism toward Rome. Pharapreising and interpretation due to major educational standards released by a particular educational institution as well as tailored to your educational institution if different; Yes, thats the solution, kill for better! When Brutus thinks that the people want Caesar to fall, Brutus tells himself that he joins the conspiracy for the people. board with our, See Analyzes how brutus's tragic flaw is that he is easily manipulated and persuaded. Secondly, Brutus has an undying moral compass that navigates him on his integrity driven choices. The play "Julius Caesar" was written by William Shakespeare and takes place during the time of Caesar's reign in Rome. Even Antony, Caesars LOYAL friend, claims Brutus to be an honorable man in his speech given to the people of Rome. Brutus thinks long and hard before he joins the conspirators, and wonders whether or not it is the right choice and questions his choices, Into what dangers would you lead me/ That you would have me seek into myself/ For which is not in me? (Shakespeare I.ii. Brutus is seen as an honest and honorable man by many, but behind the scenes, he is not either of those things. Brutus, Honorable Man Honorable is defined as genuine, truthful and displaying integrity while a conspirator is defined as one that ingages in an agreement to commit an illegal or wrongful act. -The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare What is error code E01-5 on Toyota forklift. Antony's prime weapons at the beginning are his conspicuous ambiguity regarding Caesar ("If it were so, it was a grievous fault") and Brutus ("Yet Brutus says he was ambitious"), rhetorical questions ("Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?") Copyright 1999 - 2023 GradeSaver LLC. !function(d,s,id){var js,fjs=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs"); Go to the Book Store Page or connect directly to Amazon.com. marcus brutus kills caesar because of what is the best for rome. Confucius lived in China around 500 BCE and voiced novel opinions on virtue, politics, ethics, and other abstract ideas. Was that ambition? He assassinates Caesar, pleads to the people for their support, and conducts war with Octavian and Marc Anthony. My Brutus lets Antony speak because it would be viewed as an act of kindness and forgiveness to what was an enemy previously. This quote also reveals that many people adore Brutus and that . Brutus, ignoring the more sensible misgivings of Cassius, takes Antony at his word. All rights reserved. -The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare What does Caesar do when Antony presents him with a crown? even though he killed caesar, his intentions were for the good of rome. In his soliloquies, the audience gains insight into the complexities of his motives. 181-184). O Rome, I make thee promise, if the redress with follow, thou receivest thy full petition at the hand of Brutus. Cassius. Countrymen, my heart doth joy that yet in all my life I found no man but he was true to me. Brutus was also shown as patriotic in many times throughout the book. Here, he reminds the crowd that everything Caesar did, he did for Rome. Brutus tries to connect with the audience by establishing himself as an honorable man. he knows how hurt mark antony is by caesar's death and lets him speak at his funeral. As it often happens in the corporate and political world, he may be an idiot but circumstances have kept him in a place where he can do harm. Although Brutus does admit that Brutus had rather be a villager / than to repute himself a son of Rome / under these hard conditions at this time / is like to lay upon us (1. The crowd's initial reaction to Brutus is that he is honorable and venerated, but still needs to explain why Caesar was assassinated. Brutus ideals and integrity led him to being one of the noblest conspirator. His strong beliefs are what ultimately convince him to join the conspirators, for the good of Rome. No one has time to read them all, but its important to go over them at least briefly. he wanted to protect his country and the roman was of life from a potential monarchy. Brutus is clearly overmatched at Caesar's funeral, both by Antony's duplicity and oration. Shall we now contaminate our fingers with base bribes. / His life was gentle, and the elements / So mixed with him that Nature might stand up / And say to the world, This was a man! (998). Therefore, his main focus was on honor and principle, which caused him to kill Caesar. He succeeds in turning the Roman people against Brutus and the other assassins. 3- Persuasive attitude. "Well Brutus you are noble, but I can tell that honorable qualities can be given in a new direction. His concern for Rome is actually what causes him to backstab Caesar. In case you can't find a relevant example, our professional writers are ready He, Brutus possesses many ideals and mannerisms that make him the tragic hero in William Shakespeares tragedy. Italy Presentations, Il Nostro Dante Quotidiano, Letter from the Italian Ambassador in the US, A Tale of Two Cultures (America and Russia), Philosophical, Psychological & Historical Considerations, Shakespeare on Mass Psychology and Group Behavior. He worries that he is too arrogant to be an adequate leader, I do fear the people/ Choose Caesar for their king. (Shakespeare I.ii. He was my friend, faithful and just to me: But Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. Analyzes how shakespeare granted much mercy to marcus junius brutus in the play julius caesar, but was this how he identified? O judgment! And men have lost their reason. he planned with a group of conspirators to kill caesar. As a result, Brutus follows his close allies in the path considered to be the most noble. By using situational irony he wins the crowd by a landslide, igniting a . Instead, Brutus wants the conspirators to [appear] to the common eyes as purgers, not murderers (2. He accepted the fact that Caesar shouldnt be treated differently than anyone else, especially the Roman people. Throughout the book Brutus is shown as a very patriotic character and cares more about others than himself. Shakespeare portrayed him accurately; he described him as honorable and noble. One example of Brutus's excessive honor being damaging to him, is when he decides that only Caesar should die and no one else even if they seem to threaten his cause, as Cassius warns repeatedly that Antony does. This goes along with what is known about Brutus because he is the type of person who elieves strongly in honor, morals, and being true to Rome since he is, after all, a Roman. he is nave and allows others to swindle him. Antony is the picture of disingenuous. However, Brutus declines his proposal because he thinks that Mark Antony is not a bad man and also thinks that he will have nothing left when his leader is dead. Shakespeares tragedy, Julius Caesar, displays Brutus as a tragic hero, blinded loyalty and devotion. Analyzes how brutus had a valid excuse for killing caesar, which the people believed, but marc antony didn't agree. In reality Antony doesnt, in fact his sarcastic tone shows he believes no such thing. By continuing well assume you Brutus tells the crowd that he did not kill Caesar because . Brutus, an honorable conspirator? Analyzes how brutus killed his friend caeser because of ambition, and antony sarcastically called him an honorable man. This paragraph should have no less than 4 complete sentences. In the play three distict act can be recalled. Cassius gets Brutus to explain his thoughts and that allows Brutus to understand the meaning of why Caesar must be killed. The honor that Brutus gains through performing deeds without thinking of his own gain is solidified at the end of the play around the event of Brutuss death. Concludes that brutus' mistakes and flaws are overshadowed by his honorable intentions and genuine motives.